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History of the Ancient World

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Ancient World

Culture & Society

Civil War

Early Civilizations

Get to know interesting, strange yet stunning facts about the ancient civilizations.

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Historical Updates

A Thorough Study Why Men Live Shorter than Women

We all know that common phrase “Women live longer than Men,” and that is exactly true. But why? Is it because men have a risky behavior than women, especially in their early teenage years? Several studies have unveiled that men die earlier than women. In fact, men are more often susceptible to various health diseases at an earlier age.

Natural selection is sure weird at some times. Keep in mind that it doesn’t necessarily favor traits associated with vigor, longevity, and health. What it does is it encourages the reproductive process to increase a person’s lifespan.

Longevity and reproduction are commonly seen in women. From pregnancy, they give birth and then goes to a stage of lactation that can take a toll on their energy and health. Several researchers have concluded that bearing more children resulted in a higher oxidative stress in women. This is more prominent in women that are in their post-menopausal stage. A 2006 study showed that women having more children resulted in a shorter post-menopausal lifespan. Which means the more you produce, the shorter your lifespan will get.

However, it’s a different story to men. Although men don’t bear the cost of pregnancy, they still allocate a great deal of energy, especially when it comes to the reproductive process. Reproductive effort in men means involving themselves in situations involving risky behavior, accumulating a larger body mass, especially in the skeletal muscle mass. All the spent energy of these activities just to maintain muscle for a lifetime is equal to women who are on labor and to the breastfeeding stage, although they are somewhat manageable. Hormones play a vital role in everybody, no matter if it is a man or woman. Physiological mechanisms also help in managing the tradeoffs that result from the conflicting needs of the body. Men’s testosterone levels help on regulating muscle and reproductive behavior, but it comes with a price you have to pay.

Testosterone is more prominent in men compared to women. Although women still produce it but only at small amounts. Testosterone helps men to grow a beard and to change to tone of their voice when they hit puberty. What we didn’t know is that testosterone is also responsible for the significant impact on energy consumption in men. There are several other things that testosterone is responsible off, and these are:

  • Increases metabolism
  • Boosts the libido
  • Helps build muscle
  • Promote anabolism

As we can see, testosterone is like a main weapon that man always carry. Although sounding healthy, it can be a win-win situation where it can make or break you.

Indeed, the less fat you have, the better you will look in front of the mirror. However, it comes with a price like making you vulnerable to food shortfalls and various kinds of infection. Acute rises in testosterone levels can increase men’s reproductive efforts, but it causes a negative impact on its physiological demands as a result. Male quolls experience a dramatic one-time rise in testosterone that triggers intense bouts of mating—and very high mortality due to male/male aggression and fat depletion. Females are lucky to live up to three years. Meanwhile, men can barely make it to live more than that.

Testosterone longevity and aging are a bit vague and pose a challenge, combining that with men’s shorter lifespan, it resulted in an analogous situation that needs to be further looked upon. Researchers have gone deep down to historical data to determine the effects of lifespan into men. During the 19th century, especially in China, men get their genitals removed for religious purposes. Not to mention, castration as well. This resulted in a large number of eunuchs during the 17th and 18th century in Asia and Europe. However, this doesn’t show any longevity changes in men’s lifespan. In a Korean study, however, castrated men are recorded to live longer from those who aren’t. These historical studies are not enough to prove such a conclusion.

Scientists have gone far to get a better picture of the effects of testosterone on men’s longevity. A test was conducted to birds where researchers have to increase their testosterone levels to see some effects. And the results are impressive. Birds with high testosterone levels are more active on building multiple nests, ward off competitors, and father more offspring than birds that has normal testosterone levels.

Multiple companies have created testosterone supplements for men to take to ward off the negative effects of reproductive effort and longevity. There’s still a little amount of evidence to prove the claim that men taking testosterone has shorter life spans. A 2014 study shows that senior men who take testosterone experienced an acute, non-fatal myocardial infarction exactly ninety days after taking the supplements. Although it’s good for muscle growth, their organs couldn’t handle to tolerate the metabolic burden. Keep in mind that these effects are only present on older men, which encourages researchers to do further investigation of the study.

Testosterone also causes significant immunological effects to a man’s lifespan. Men are even more prone to various infections than women. Several reasons come into play, including the exposure of men to infection opportunities compared to women. Testosterone suppresses immune function. Estradiol, on the other hand, is the primary sex steroid in women that bolsters immune function.

Not only infection, but cancer is also a primary concern that men should worry. Most especially prostate cancer. Countries that have a population of men with high levels of testosterone are known to exhibit a higher incidence of prostate cancer.

As you can see, natural selection doesn’t only play a vital role in men’s longevity. In short, shorter lifespans and health conditions are due to men’s evolutionary history. But keep in mind that evolution is changing over time. Humans are malleable, and the physiology that supports such malleability is probably why we had evolved with the traits that define us. Men have various reproductive strategies, such as paternal care that contributed to their evolutionary success. But testosterone still plays a crucial role for men in order to reproduce.

Where Baseball Began: A Brief History

Baseball is a popular international sport but is mostly played in Canada and the US. The game consists of two teams of nine players over nine innings. To win the game, one team will be on the field with one of the players are assigned as a pitcher and the other on the remainder field. The opposing team carries a bat to hit the ball. As you can see, baseball has similarities with other bat-sports such as cricket. The difference lies in the field where baseball has four bases the hitter needs to pass before getting a score unless there’s a home run.

Even though the game was more dominant in the US, it didn’t originate in North America. In fact, the sport existed back in medieval times where other bat games are also invented as well. Bat games such as Stoolball, rounders, dog and cat, and cricket all existed in the medieval era. Among all of them, Stoolball is the most popular of them all and are played by milkmaids using a milk stool as a wicket. The way it’s played is the ball will be thrown and it needs to be hit using a batter or a small bat to prevent it from hitting the stool.

Next, we have the Rounders, which is a game that’s similar to baseball than Stoolball. In this game, two opposing teams filed and bat just like in baseball. The hitter will then pass four bases to gain a score for the team. A modernized version of Rounders has the ball thrower bowl underhand to a batsman who must bat using one hand and runs no matter he hits or misses the ball. However, the traditional Rounders give players the freedom to create their own rules compared to the modern one.

And then there’s the Town Ball, a game that shares some similarities with Rounders. The difference? Every region has its own specific rules of play. Town Ball existed way back in the 1740s in some parts in the US. It is also sometimes called baseball, round ball, or just simply “ball.”

Early references about baseball are dated back in the year 1971, where a group of people at Pittsfield town hall played the sport within 80 yards of the town meeting house. However, the first recorded baseball game was dated back in the year 1845. Alexander Cartwright, a New York firefighter, gathered his men to form a club named the “Knickerbocker Club.” The club has specific rules of play, and they’re first ever game was held in the Elysian Fields on June 18, 1846, where they played against the New York Nine. However, the Knickerbocker Club lost the game with a score of 23-1. Talk about bad luck at its finest. Since then, various baseball clubs have been created.

  • 1858
  • A total of 25 clubs have gathered together to create the National Association of Base Ball Players (NABPP).
  • 1869
  • The Cincinnati Red Stockings was born and was considered as the first professional baseball team. They won about six matches which put a name for themselves in the sports industry.
  • 1876
  • The NABPP become redundant as the club was deemed for failure. As a result, the National League was born and continued on up to this day.

The National League was made up of 12 professional teams. However, because of the decline in ticket sales, it forced the league to cut down their size into eight teams in 1900. This is a good opportunity for the “Western League” so that they can recruit the cities that have been dropped by the National League. As the Western League expanded, it renamed themselves into the “American League.”

There’s a fine line between the difference of the two leagues. Both of them has the same set of rules except for the designated hitter rule that’s adopted by the American League. This rule lets the team nominate a player who bats in the place of the pitcher. The National League doesn’t have this rule, and they stick to the original rule instead where the pitcher does all the batting.

In 1994, a huge baseball strike hit the “Major League Baseball” (MLB) because of the numerous scandals in the field of baseball that existed in the early 1990s. Declining ticket sales and audience rage forced the money of the league to be called up. This alarms the MLB to tighten up anti-drug policies and go into damage control to protect the spirit of the sport. In 2000, the Commissioners Blue Ribbon Panel report on revenue and payroll differences between clubs finally showed signs of paying off with attendance numbers higher than the previous high in 1993. And in 2006, the consolidation of media management was made into a single corporation.

This resulted in a positive impact on the MLB in the following years. Who would have thought to create simple changes to the MLB’s structure, especially in financial matters resulted in several minor clubs in the league to win in the World Series?

  • 2001 – Arizona Diamondbacks
  • 2022 – Anaheim Angels
  • 2003 – Florida Marlins
  • 2005 – Chicago White Sox

Thirteen Amazing Facts About Bees

  1. Bee Stings Create Miracles
  2. The pain of being stung by a bee is unbearable. However, you shouldn’t worry. If you have an active sex life, then being stung by a bee is a miracle. Why? Because a toxin in a bee’s venom contains melittin that may prevent HIV. What it does is the toxin pokes holes into the virus’ protective envelope to kill it.
  3. Another thing is that bee stings can ease the pain of people that are suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. The molecules found in the bee’s venom is known to increase your body’s glucocorticoid level to prevent inflammation.

  4. Bees Are Hard Workers
  5. Bees are vastly different from people when it comes to working. During the winter seasons, bees can live and work up to nine months. However, it’s a different story during summer as they last only six weeks until they make their own bed. That said, bees just work until they die, which is impressive.

  6. Bees Brain Chemistry is Amazing
  7. There are different types of bees. We have the scout bees, which are the ones who search for food. And then we have the soldier bees which guards the hive for the rest of their lives. Finally, we have the undertakers who remove the dead bees out of their hive. But the spotlight goes to regular honeybees where they can perform multiple jobs throughout their life. What’s amazing about them is that they can alter their brain chemistry before tackling another job. Talk about multitasking at its finest.

  8. Their Brain is Unbelievable
  9. When adult bees do jobs that are meant for younger bees, their brain stops aging. Meaning, their brain ages in reverse that will make them think young again. A study conducted by various scientists shows that this helps the bees to slow the possible onset of dementia.

  10. Bees Provide Medicine
  11. Bees use a mixture of poplar and evergreen to create a resin called “propolis” to reinforce their hive. What’s amazing about this is that propolis can cure various health conditions such as cold sores, canker sores, herpes, sore throat, eczema, and even cavities.

  12. Bees Can Recognize Humans
  13. Bees eyes are like a multi-camera system that can combine multiples images into one. That said, whenever they see a human face, they take parts from the eyebrows, lips, nose, mouth, etc. to form one big picture of a face. This process is called the “configural processing,” which can help most tech manufacturers today to improve facial recognition.

  14. Every Bee Has Different Personalities
  15. Not all bees are identical to each other. Sure they do when it comes to appearance, but their personalities differ from each and one of them. Researchers have found that there are bees who are adventure-seekers, timid bees, etc. A study conducted in 2011 also showed that bees also have feelings. It’s like a real-life Disney movie where insects or animals can talk.

  16. The Effects of Caffeine & Cocaine to Bees
  17. Caffeine does wonders to bees. A nectar laced with caffeine can attract pollinators such as bees to keep coming back for more. However, it’s miles different to cocaine as they turn bees into pesky little liars. Bees get high when in contact with cocaine, which makes them dance to communicate with their fellow brethren to indicate there’s good food nearby even though there are not. What’s worst is that they exaggerate their moves and overemphasize the food’s quality when they get high too much.

  18. They Can Travel Using Ancient Navigation Techniques
  19. They say that out with the old, in with the new. That’s not true for most of the case for bees. They use the sun as a compass to travel wherever they want to go. And when it’s cloudy, they navigate by polarized light to find the sun in the sky. This method is similarly used by Vikings back then where they navigate using the sun by the help of sundials.

  20. Bees Have the Ability to Solve Math Problems
  21. Picture yourself in a situation where you have to visit six different stores located at various places in the city and you must find the shortest distance to travel while visiting the six. This is what mathematicians call the “traveling salesman problem” which can really take a toll on your brain. For bees, however, solving this one is as easy as pie. In fact, bees are the only animals that can solve this problem in the entire animal species.

  22. Bees Are Efficient Builders
  23. Back then, various mathematicians and philosophers have proven that honeycombs were the most practical structures that are built around. Honeycombs use the least amount of wax, which makes them efficient structures. And what’s even surprising is that honeycombs are made with perfectly-shaped hexagons where you can say that bees put too much attention to detail.

  24. Bees Behave Like Serial Killers
  25. Serial killers commit their crimes close to home but not too near that the neighbors will notice. The same goes for bees where they collect pollen close to their hive but far enough that predators can’t spot the hive. Scientists have studied this kind of situation and have compiled some few algorithms which helped the police to track serial killers.

  26. Bees are Job Creators
  27. In the US, over 1.51 pounds of honey are consumed by Americans each year. In addition to that, bees worked hard to pollinate every single plant or crops each year that they can cover up to 80% of crops in the entire country.

The Origins of Ice Skating

Ice skating is everywhere, especially in some colder parts in the world. However, ice skating is now also found on recreational parks or malls via a man-made ice rink. But there are still some that do traditional ice skating on frozen lakes and rivers in countries such as Sweden and Canada.

Archeologists have dug up some information and found that ice skating has been around in the time of our ancestors. People back then even use it as a means of transportation where cars are still non-existent. But there’s more to this story and we are going to tackle that down below.

  • Ice Skating in its Early Stages
  • Our primitive ancestors are one of the creative kind. They made ice skating devices in the form of bones that could slide and glide over frozen water. These bones are attached to a flat surface since shoes are still not invented at that time. In the 13th century, the Dutch made significant advancement to ice skating by integrating blades.
  • The blades are said to be perfect that it doesn’t even need to undergo any major changes. But as time goes by, several people have integrated these blades into the sole of a shoe. And this is the result of the ice skating wearable that we know today.

  • How Figure Skating Began
  • Figure skating is a sport that involves dancing, acrobatics, and swaying majestically while skating. This sport has been around for hundreds of years but is strictly limited to the wealthy ones on Europe back then. However, in the mid-19th century, Jackson Haines has made several improvements to the sport by adding bold and energetic moves.
  • Because of this, Haines became popular and have won myriads of contests that helped him reach the championships. His improved form of ice skating caught the attention of many that it became a full-blown sport. As a result, figure skating made its way back to the US and has been recognized as an international sport.

  • The Amateur Status in Figure Skating
  • In 1995, ice skating was a strictly amateur discipline with no financial compensation. This has caused a rage where Olympic ice skaters cut their careers short to join the more lucrative entertainment industry. The international federation was alarmed about the situation and as a result, they amend the rules to allow figure skaters to earn money. Figure skating is now a well-known sport in the Winter Olympics and remained popular until today.
  • Because of its popularity, other types of skating had also joined the Winter Olympics such as speed skating, short-track speed skating, and ice hockey- a sport that’s popular in countries such as North America and Scandinavia.

How Telephones Began: A Historical Timeline

Talking to your loved ones no matter how far they are is what telephones have bought to our lives. Gone are the days of using snail mail where it’ll take days before replying to each other. From two cans tied to each other to electricity-driven ones, telephones have been in our lives long before. And in this article, we are going to see how the telephone has developed throughout the years.

  • The 1800s
  • In this year, the electric telegraph was born. It is a piece of tech that can send messages in whatever telegraph office is nearby. Alexander Graham Bell was inspired by the telegraph, thinking that he can improve the tech thinking that it can deliver and do more from what it can do. And this is what driven him to invent the telephone.

  • 1876
  • During this year, Bell applied a patent for his telephone. However, Elisha Gray wants to steal the show by applying a patent for her own invention that’s similarly inspired by Bell. But what she didn’t know is that Bell’s lawyer and the clerk of the patent office are good friends with each other. As a result, Bell’s telephone was patented first, delaying Gray’s caveat until Bell’s application could be presented.
  • The patent examiner, however, realized that both Bell and Gray’s applications are similar to each other where they halt the patent processing until they see a demonstration for both devices. Bell took the opportunity and demonstrated Gray’s technique. Because of this, Bell was granted the patent which was then upheld in a court of law. Historians have studied this scenario and concluded that Gray would have been the inventor of the telephone not until Bell who demonstrated the technology first.

  • 1877
  • Telephones were first installed in Boston and were the first city to be given the opportunity to do so. However, the only downside of it is that subscribers were paired and could only speak to one another, limiting the capability to speak to other people.

  • 1878
  • Telephone switchboards were invented that enables subscribers to talk to any phone connected on the same set of telephone lines. After three years, telephone demand had increased, and over 50,000 of telephones were installed in the US alone
  • The birth of telephone switchboards is like a breath of fresh air for telephone subscribers. But despite its pros, it has its cons also. The only way to talk to another subscriber on their own will is by asking the operator to place the call. Once done, the operator would liaise to the next operator in a sequence to connect the call. Long distance calls are impossible during this time. As subscribers were forced to make an appointment to the telephone company to use a specialized phone booth to make long distance calls.

  • 1900
  • But the tables have turned this time around. Electromechanical exchanges were invented, and the birth of the rotary dial telephone was here. The rotary dial phone allows subscribers to place a call without human intervention unlike before. The US is one of the first countries to make use of this technology.

  • 1904
  • About 3 million subscribers were connected this time around using manual exchange, which doubles the employee requirement of about ten thousand operators.

  • 1920
  • The telephone has undergone a huge development change as Western Electric developed a phone that included both earpiece and microphone in one handset. This allows subscribers to move around almost anywhere in the house while making a call, unlike the earlier ones where users were fixed into one position. The “Bell Model 102” is the first telephone to use this kind of tech.

  • The 1960s
  • Digital telephones and exchanges are invented, but subscribers have stick to the old instead of embracing this tech, making at almost a commercial failure.

  • 1973
  • Digital telephony was more prominent in the era of mobile telephones that used radio waves to wirelessly transmit calls. The first one to use this tech is an engineer that worked for Motorola during 1973.

  • The 1980s, 1990s, and Beyond
  • Mobile phone demand has taken the world by storm starting from the 1980s, which increased in the 1990s and continued to go on up to this day where smartphones are now the primary piece of tech when it comes to virtual communication.

Historical Timeline of the Television

The television we all know and love today has a sophisticated development in the past. In this article, we are going to tackle the history of television and how it paved its way to be the most crucial piece of appliance in our homes today.

  • 1880
  • Television development was quite late in the world of technology. Back then, the main purpose of the television is to be used along with telephones that even Alexander Graham Bell (the inventor of the telephone) created a working photo phone this year. Also, this year, several technologies have emerged ranging from electricity, radio broadcasts, and last but not least, the television.

  • 1876
  • In this year, the cathode ray tube was born. It was the first piece of tech for the television where it uses electricity that’s forced into the vacuum tube to produce light in the front glass. The cathode ray tube was operated using mechanical structures as electricity is in its early stages at this time. An image will be transmitted into the viewer by the use of a rotating metal disk perforated with viewing holes.

  • 1926
  • The picture over remote broadcast first existed in this year where John Logie Baird and Charles Jenkins broadcasted a series of small moving black and white images using a mechanical structure. During this time, the signal only consisted of 30 lines, which is quite low compared to our TVs today.

  • 1927
  • Philo Farnsworth unveiled the first electronic system with motion camera. It can transmit a Hollywood film that had been projected in front of a TV camera. Bell Laboratories partnered with the Department of Commerce to use Farnsworth’s technology to create the very first live broadcast of a person. Both picture and sound are broadcasted by the help of radio waves.

  • 1939
  • The race was on in the technology world as Bell Laboratories competed with RCA to develop and improve the broadcasting and receiving system for commercial uses. RCA came in first as they unveiled the first major broadcasting breakthrough in the New York World’s Fair where they showcased a black and white broadcast of the President’s speech.

  • 1947
  • During the time of World War II, the development of the TV has come to a halt. But when the war ended, the demand for television has flooded the market where people are desperate to get a hands-on into one. Commercial broadcasting started in this year where channels such as NBC, CBS, and ABC are competing who will get the most viewers. All three channels have showcased shows that existed in their radio stations before, and it’s refreshing to see a visual representation of what people loved that time.

  • 1950
  • In the middle of the 1950s, almost all Americans now have a television in their homes as bigger networks are starting to show up while radio listeners are dropping in numbers. Not only the US, countries such as the UK, France, and Germany also seen a growth in television demand as well. The NTSC was born which was used in the US, Canada, and Japan. Meanwhile, Europe developed a more modern system called PAL as they have compatibility issues with NTSC in the country.

  • 1960
  • The television continued to grow where it became the number one platform for entertainment and news. John Kennedy was also elected as president primarily because of his outstanding television performance. It was indeed a pivotal year for television.

  • 1964
  • Television color was born in this year and it was a technological breakthrough that really transformed the world. This is the first time where viewers saw their favorite shows, musicals, and news broadcasts in color. Color television took the world by storm as new shows and channels are starting to emerge, making people have a wide range of options to choose from.

  • 1975
  • Cable and satellite television make their debut in this year, which enables networks to increase their reach across different countries around the world. An example is Mohammed Ali’s Thrilla, which was aired live from Manila to US audiences.

  • The 1980s
  • High definition television was created in this year where it has a total of 1125 number of lines. However, it didn’t gain too much market share because of the rise of Internet TV during the time.

Fifteen Facts About Florence Nightingale

Talking about wonder nurses, you will probably love the story of Florence Nightingale. If you don’t know who she is, then you have come to the right place as we are going to list down fifteen heroic facts about her. Florence was born on none other than “Florence” in Italy on May 12, 1820. She left a revolutionary mark on healthcare, sanitation, and statistics. Below, we are going to explore more about her and how she became an icon in the field of nursing.

  1. Florence is Fluent in Many Languages
  2. Florence is fond of the Latin and Greek language. Her father saw her potential, and through him, she learned the basics of everything related to mathematics at a young age as well as philosophy and literature.

  3. She Pursued Nursing at a Young Age
  4. Back then, nursing is a black sheep of among all occupations around. It was heavily associated with low social status as well as alcoholism. Women who pursued nursing have small wages to the point that they have to enter prostitution to garner extra cash. But that didn’t stop Florence to pursue her dream career. Even with her parent’s objections, Florence pushed herself to study nursing because it’s what she wants. In 1850, she started learning the craft and basics of nursing. And then three years later, she became the superintendent of a hospital based in London.

  5. Marriage is a big “NO” for Her
  6. Florence is the kind of woman that can stand on her own without the need of a man. She turned down myriads of proposals including one from Henry Nicholson.

  7. Florence’ 38 Nurses
  8. During the war between France and Britain with Russia, this is where Florence turned into a Victorian celebrity. She had a good connection with UK’s war secretary Sidney Herbert. Herbert gave her permission to allow 38 volunteers to treat the wounded in the war. Back then, cleanliness is nowhere to be found. With floors littered with feces, rats and vermin are running around the hallways, and linens are looking like they came straight from a horror movie. Because of this, about 42.7% of patients died, and this is where Florence implemented strict hygiene rules for the hospital. As a result, the number has gone down to 2% by June 1855.

  9. The Lady with the Lamp
  10. Florence Nightingale became a huge name in the nursing field. The good news then spread to the entire London where she was renowned as a “ministering angel” in a London Times article back then. They also added that she heals the wounded with a little lamp in her hand. And this is where she was known as the “Lady with the Lamp.”

  11. She Became a Messenger
  12. Florence became the messenger of the war on behalf of dead soldiers back in 1856.
  • She Helped Popularized the Pie Chart
  • The first pie chart was unveiled in 1801, but haven’t gained popularity since its release. However, historians have recognized nurses to be the early adopter and promoter of the pie chart. Florence is among one of them to utilize this statistical tool.

  • Queen Victoria Was Her Fan
  • The Queen is one of Nightingale’s biggest fan and she even sent a special brooch for her as a way of saying thank you. Florence and Queen Victoria first met at 1856 and continued to remain contact with each other for decades.

  • She Worked with the British Government to Enact Sanitation Laws
  • Florence used her influence to enforce sanitation laws in different parts of the UK. Between 1871 and 1875, she pushed a special legislation that would force extant buildings into connecting with main drainage. By the year 1935, the result was a 20-year increase in the life expectancy in the country.

  • Her Book Became an Inspiration Until Today
  • Florence wrote a book which became a hit in the field of nursing back then. Until today, some pointers in the book are still being practiced in hospitals.

  • The American Civil War Followed Her Advice
  • The Union and the Confederacy followed Florence’ advice about proper hygiene to the point they built hospitals under her theories.

  • She Became a Teacher
  • Florence became a teacher to Linda Richards, America’s first trained nurse. Later on, her focus shifted towards the field of psychiatry to work with mental health professionals.

  • She is the First Woman to be Inducted into the Order of Merit
  • King Edward VII awarded Florence because of her various meritorious services, especially in the field of arts, literature, science, and most especially nursing. Florence got the award in 1907 where no other woman got the honor. However, the award was passed on to Dorothy Hodgkin in 1965.

  • International Nurses Day
  • Florence’ birthday became an international nurses’ day, which has been going strong since 1974.

  • Her Voice is On the Internet
  • Florence met with Thomas Edison’s representatives back on July 30, 1980, where they created a brief recording of her speech. And surprisingly, the recording was passed on from generations to generations and can be found on YouTube today.

Facts You Need to Know About the History of Tennis

Tennis is well known as a very competitive sport. The prize money of the sport is just the iceberg of something much bigger down below. Which means that tennis is just more than what it can be in terms of money and reputation. Tennis is also perceived as a sport that only the rich and famous can play just like golf. But when did the sport actually began and why do people have this kind of perception on it? Diving in its history is the key to finding the answers. Find out by reading down below.

  • How Tennis Got its Name
  • In the 16th and 18th centuries, the sport was originally called the “Jeu de Paumm” which means the game of the palm. But when players started playing it, they will often shout “Tenez!” which means “Play!” during the game. And that’s where the name Tennis came from. During medieval times, it was called “real tennis” or “royal tennis.”

  • Tennis is a Favorite Among the Monks
  • Back then, it was known that tennis was loved by the Monks. They often play the sport to pass the time or just want to have a little bit of exercise.
  • But the gameplay was different back then. Monks will use their palms to hit the ball, which resulted in various accidents. The Monks then came to an idea to use leather gloves while playing the sport. But this hasn’t stopped the accidents from happening because the ball was made of wood. So instead of gloves, they created wooden racquets to serve and hit the ball. During the 16th century, the game was played in an enclosed area opposed to outdoors, and by this time, a set of rules have been made. Originating from the Monk’s monastery, the sport had found its way to the royal courts because of its popularity.

  • A Favorite Sport of Kings
  • In the time of Henri II, there was a book about tennis that’s written by one of their priests. However, two royals have died because of the sport. Louis X being the first one because of severe chill and Charles VIII where he was struck by a tennis ball. But their deaths didn’t stop the royal players from playing the game. King Charles IX even created the first over pro tennis tour with three ranks. The apprentice, associate, and master.

  • How Modern Tennis Began
  • Tennis became a popular sport in England because of the Henry’s. Henry VIII was even rumored that he was playing tennis while his second wife has been arrested and executed (talk about not giving a damn). When James I was held king, there were 14 courts existed in London alone.
  • But the origins of modern tennis began with two military men named Harry Gem and Walter Clopton Wingfield. They combined elements of rackets such as the Pelota and Croquet and based the game on real tennis back in the medieval times.
  • Wingfield patented the game in 1874 and called it “lawn tennis.” He then released a book that talks about lawn tennis where the modern terms “deuce” and “love” originated from. The scoring method of modern tennis was heavily borrowed from the French.

Eight Ancient Techniques People Use to Smell Good Back Then

In the past, especially in the time of our ancestors, deodorants are nowhere to be found. And people are doing creative ways to shove away that unwanted body odor. In this article, we are going to tackle the most creative techniques people use back then to eliminate body odor.

  1. Ostrich Eggs
  2. Egyptians have been the staple of creating “smell good” products such as perfume and breath mints. In fact, they were among the first people to invent the deodorant. However, their deodorant is a tad bit different from what we use today. Their purpose for the product is to eliminate the smell of sweat by using a formula of ostrich eggs, nuts, tamarisk, and tortoiseshell ground which is then mixed into fat.

  3. Porridge Balls
  4. Another thing was the porridge balls. Where the Egyptians create flavored porridge mixed with incense and then rolled into balls. These balls are then placed beneath the armpits to eliminate sweat that causes body odor.

  5. Carob
  6. Today, Carob is used as a chocolate substitute. But before, they are used as a deodorant by our Egyptian ancestors. The Mediterranean region is rich in Carob trees where Egyptians will crush the pods and rub them all over their bodies to fight body odor.

  7. Scented Olive Oil
  8. In ancient Greece and Rome, Olive has been the number one ingredient in perfumes. Back then, where deodorants and perfumes still haven’t existed yet, they will use leaves, roots, and flowers pressed in olive and then applied it to their skin to smell good.

  9. Musk
  10. In the Medieval era, people harvest musk from a small sac in a musk deer’s genitals to use as a perfume ingredient. Of course, it smells like urine at first. What they did to achieve that sweet and sensual aroma is they harvested the gland and then left to dry. Because of this, musk became popular back then to the point where the musk deer have found a place in the list of endangered animals during the 70s. Today, musk-scented perfumes are now made from synthetic materials.

  11. Ambergris
  12. Ambergris is a waxy substance that came from a sperm whale’s intestines. When harvested fresh, it smells like cow dung. What people do is they left it to age for some time until the smell turns into a sweet and musky aroma. Fast forward today, ambergris-scented perfumes are now made from synthetic materials just like musk. However, there are still some that use natural ambergris but are only reserved for the high-end ones.

  13. Carbolic Acid
  14. During the time of the early 19th and 20th hundreds, perfume brands will trick customers by telling them they stink so that they will buy their products. However, the products used before contains carbolic acid which is a harmful substance that can damage the skin. There was a home recipe for a perfume back in 1903 where it contained carbolic acid which caused a rage.

  15. Perfume Baths
  16. Ancient Greeks have found a way to smell good throughout the day, and this is by constantly bathing. Even in the high society before, people will do scented baths before applying perfume into their armpits to feel and smell fresh.

Cellphones: Where it Began

Today, we are going to talk about the history of cellphones. Cellphones have originated first in 1910, created by Lars Magnus Ericsson where he installed a telephone in his car. Whenever he sees a place where phone lines are accessible, he would connect them using a pair of long electric wires. But phone had gone through a long phase of development before it became to what we have known today. Let’s talk more about that down below.

  • 1946
  • Soviet Engineers Shapiro and Zaharchenko installed a mobile phone in a car and succeeded. It has a feature that can connect to a local telephone network that’s about 20 kilometers in range. One year later, Douglas H. Ring and W. Rae Young proposed a revolutionary hexagonal cell to be installed on car mobile phones via a three-directional antenna that can receive signals. But this kind of technology still didn’t exist at that time.

  • 1956
  • In this year, the Mobile Telephone System A (MTA) was released by Ericsson. It is a fully automatic mobile phone system that requires manual control to operate. The only downside of it is its weight that bears 40 kilograms, which is kind of heavy for regular usage.

  • 1957
  • Soviet radio engineer Leonid Kupriyanovich followed Ericsson’s footsteps and created the portable mobile phone. This is where the “radiophone” was born. This phone is equipped with an antenna and a rotary dial that can connect to base stations with the ability to connect to a local telephone network. The best part? The phone only weighs 3 kilograms and could operate for up to 30 kilometers. It also has an insane 30 hours of battery life which is a big deal during that time.

  • 1958
  • The following year, Kupriyanovich released a “pocket” version of his radiophone. This time, the phone weighed about 500 grams with improved features from its predecessor. Also during this time, Russia continued to develop mobile phone systems that can connect to base stations which could cater up to six customers. The only problem with this is that calls will be interrupted when the phone went through several base stations. The only possible solution for this is that the user will stay on that specific base to get a smooth call.

  • 1965
  • Remember the MTA phone in 1956? It got a newer version with MTB transistors and DTMF signaling. This time the phone only weighed 9 kilograms, a huge leap from the 40-kilogram one on the original.

  • 1970
  • The signal problem in 1958 is addressed in this year, where Amos E. Joel Jr. invented an automatic “call handoff” system. The function of this system is to give mobile phones the freedom to move into several cell areas without their calls being interrupted.

  • 1973
  • First generation networks were released in this era. It started with the Motorola DynaTAC which was released in April 1973.

  • 1990
  • In this era, the second generation network (2G) phones started to emerge. As well as GSM, CDMA, and iDEN.

Today, 3G then followed with a much faster EDGE and GRPS features as 2G phones have been phased out in the phone industry. Although some still use 2G networks, but they are reserved for basic phones for calls and texts only. Smartphones have been the staple of the tech industry today where they use 3G and 4G networks as a means of communication. There are also companies who have built 5G chips to be used for the future smartphone generation to come.

A Historical Timeline of Football

Football, or American Football whatever you call it is a popular sport that involves two teams of players competing for territory using a ball and using several tactics to get the ball to the goal line of the opposing team’s goal. It’s just like soccer, but the only difference is that football doesn’t have a goal defender. Football is more inclined to Rugby and Australian Rules Football where all team members play a defensive or offensive role in the game. In this article, we’re going to explore the brief history of football and how it became the sport we know and love today.

  • The 1800s
  • American Football is considered indigenous in North America, and older versions of the sport were played in several countries this year. Before it got its name, the sport is called “ballown” which involves passing and punching the ball across the field pass the opposing team to score a goal. Several years later, the sport is renamed to football but its rules are changing from time to time when new students get a hands-on the sport.
  • Students at Harvard University played a similar sport on the first Monday of the academic year. The sport was called “Bloody Monday” and was played as an ice breaker for new students to get to know each other. Its objective is to score goals as much as possible.

  • The 1860s
  • Before Football, there was Rugby which was invented in England in the 1860s. Rugby is a bit similar to soccer and this play style dates back to the middle ages where groups of rival villages would compete to score a goal. Their ball was a bit different though. Instead of using an actual ball, they use inflated pig bladders instead that were held and run until the player was tackled to let go of the pig bladder. A score will be recorded if the ball (or bladder) will be picked and carried thru a designated point in the village.
  • During this time, several schools and universities had partnered together to form a set of rules for the said sport. When the rules have been laid out, the result is teams from different schools and universities can now play against each other or teams from another district.
  • However, not all are happy with the rules. Some teams created their own code instead known as rugby which involves picking up the ball and tackling opponents.

  • 1869
  • Rutgers and Princeton created their own rules of play where on November 6, 1869, the first ever intercollegiate game of football was held. Rutgers won the game with a score of six goals compared to Princeton, who only scored four goals.

  • 1873
  • Representatives from Princeton, Rutgers, Yale, and Columbia have teamed up together to create another set of rules for the sport to be used in their own intercollegiate games. The rules were inspired by rugby, with one rule reducing the number of players from twenty down to fifteen.
  • Walter Camp of Yale saw the rules and want to change it even more. From a shorter playing field and lesser players as well. Camp was the senior member of the IFA rules committee, and a few days later, his own rules were granted. This year is the birth of American style football where it became popular among American players compared to the older rugby-style game. Several colleges in the US adopted Camps football rules as well.

  • 1882
  • Camp and the rules committee brought in the new system of three downs, a further change from rugby that allowed the team with possession of the ball to retain possession until the completion of their set play.

  • The 1890s
  • Lots of colleges banned the sport because of safety concerns. The sport is called to be “too rough and brutal” were lots of reports involving injuries were on the rise. Over 60 colleges have partnered up to ban the game but that didn’t stop President Roosevelt to let the game live on. He was an avid fan of the game and what he did is he eliminated rules that contain brutality in the game.
  • Rules such as the forward pass were immediately eliminated as this is the one that causes the injuries. The number of downs also increased to four and the distance of play between downs have increased to ten yards compared to five from before.

  • 1920
  • In this year, the National Football League (NFL) was born. The rules of play are just the same for college football. Players are now called professional which enables them not to find a separate job anymore.

  • 1950
  • NFL and professional football dominated the television industry where it saw an increase in viewer numbers. The American Football League (AFL) also appeared in the scene to rival NFL where it aired in areas the NFL channel can’t reach.

  • 1970
  • From rivals to friends, both NFL and AFL partnered together to form a team franchise that defined the history of American Football. A stronger league had emerged, and thus the Super Bowl was born, which is the championship game of football as a whole.

A Brief History of the Segway HT

The Segway Human Transport (HT) vehicle was invented by Dean Kamen as a means of portable transportation. It is a two-wheel vehicle that has a self-balancing design but a tad bit different to modern motorcycles. It got its name from an Italian homophone “segues” which means “to move smoothly” from one state or condition.

Dean Kamen’s Innovations

  • Dean not only invented the Segway but also myriads of other devices as well, especially for medical purposes. As an undergraduate student, he invented the first wearable infusion pump for chemotherapy, neonatology, and endocrinology. In 1976, Dean established his first ever company the “AutoSyringe Inc..” However, he sold the company in 1982 and established another one called DEKA Research and Development Corporation, where he conducts and invents innovative products for his clients.

The Birth of the IBOT and Segway HT

  • The development of IBOT was inspired by handicapped people who are struggling to get their wheelchair around everyday objects. He then came to a solution of making a six-wheeled motorized wheelchair that lets handicapped people climb stairs with ease.
  • Dean started to create a concept of Segway in the mid-1990s, where the development of the device took approximately $100 million. The Segway was inspired by his IBOT device in terms of balance and used the technology once again. The Segway used multiple microprocessors and solid-state gyro sensors to balance itself. There are handlebars for the driver to use. Its brake system is a bit different from what we know today. Conventional brakes don’t work because it needed the wheels to balance the weight. The braking process only works when the device stops moving where the energy exerted by the Segway will be transferred back to the batteries.
  • The Segway became Dean’s revolutionary inventions and garnered popularity compared to IBOT. It can be maneuvered easily and works on both pedestrian sidewalks and crosswalks. What’s even better is that the device has zero emissions.

Consumers First Ride of the Segway HT

  • In December 2001, the Segway found its way to national television as several news reports have featured the device because of its brand new innovative experience. The hit sitcom “Frasier” even featured the Segway in a single episode.
  • In February 2002, legislation was passed that allows the Segway to be operated on the public, especially sidewalks. A year later, the legislation was passed on to thirty more states which for Segway’s public operation.
  • November 18, 2022, is the debut of the Segway to consumers. It was sold on Amazon for about $3000. However, it was a commercial failure and only sold 50,000 units as of March 2009. What’s even worst is the device itself has software issues that cause safety issues.
  • However, Special police forces took advantage of the devices’ capability and used it to train their men for the 2008 Summer Olympics. Since then, the Segway has been used by police and security agencies for patrolling operations.

Questions to Ask Before Choosing a Personal Trainer

Personal trainers really are a dime a dozen, and also in case you have never ever worked with them, you might end up getting a personal trainer that is not ideal for you. In this post, I am going to outline several criteria by which to assess a personal trainer that you are contemplating working with.

What exactly are the results like?

By exploring your prospective personal trainer in Irvine and their customers, find out whether he gets results with them. What types of outcomes? Are these the exact same results you are looking for? Put simply, in case the personal trainer of yours has received many individuals to operate a marathon, but not so many individuals to slim down, is usually that a trainer you will wish to remain with?

Is your instructor educated?

Additional letters after your name are wonderful, but as a fellow with letters after the name of his (EX: BA, etc.), CSCS, MS, CK, Ph.D., I can say it is not every thing it is cracked up to be. You will find extraordinary personal trainers around with no letters after the name of theirs. The very best training is often self-education, real-world experience and. Does your prospective trainer invest considerable amounts of time on commercial development?

Are your workouts individualized?

You’re special, therefore need to your workouts be. Do you see that all of a specific trainer ‘s clients are teaching with exactly the same style, regardless of the goals? Goals that are Different call for various methods, as do various people with the same goals. A trainer must take time to understand you, the unique situation of yours, the goals of yours, the health of yours and physical exercise history, your weaknesses and strengths, along with a ton of various other elements.

Is the instructor passionate?

A trainer doesn’t have to be outgoing or flamboyant to be passionate, though those qualities allow it to be easy to see the passion of his. Nevertheless, a trainer has to enjoy constant learning, and reaching individuals.

Does the trainer ‘s persona match yours?

When you are likely to be investing 2 to 4 hours each week with someone for months or even perhaps years, you need to ensure you are investing that time with someone you want. Naturally, this’s last, because to a few people, personality really does not matter. They are really pragmatic, and outcomes are that matter. Absolutely nothing wrong with that, so long as you’ve established criteria.

And that is that. Ideally, this enables you select a fitness instructor which is best for you. And in case you are currently dealing with a personal trainer, which can provide you with a measuring stick by which to assess your very own trainer.

DIY Wedding Planning: The Perfect Event

Truth be told, planning a party is often a good experience. Wedding planning might look like an overwhelming job when you first begin to think about it. Nevertheless, you have to breakdown items that you want to accomplish in more manageable tasks. Since in the end, it is all about the specifics.

Wedding planning might be hectic, and it is usually easier said than done. This is among the primary reasons planner has turned into an extremely well-liked work from home business opportunity. As a result, you can find a lot of folks out there vying for the business of yours. Let us face it, the last things you need are family and friends letting you know what you should do, and what to avoid. This is a precious and wonderful event of a lifetime as well as several couples these days are opting to utilize a wedding planning program to stay away from such conflicts.

Utilizing a Wedding Planner

A wedding planner is a specialist at weddings, and because most regular folks just get married twice or once in a lifetime, they are not experts at planning their weddings. Consider hiring a wedding planner in Miami, they can work in several capacities from concierge to coordinator, then everything in between. Because they often cope with wedding suppliers, they can suggest to you the most effective and most cost-effective services for your wants and needs. They can almost surely point you within the right path for your wedding needs.

Setting up your wedding plan can mean hours of research, lots of running around and being stressed out in addition to the party jitters all newlyweds experience. A wedding may be one of the most enjoyable, but times that are difficult in a young female’s life. Though a party planner’s tasks are never easy, several have suggested they get the reward of theirs by helping couples get ready for probably the most eventful day of the lives of theirs. A planner is a facilitator, money manager, mediator, and then the constructor of dreams. An assortment of specifics is juggled by them, frequently involving numerous vendors and parties.

A wedding planner is going to take the reigns of the groom and the bride to enjoy their big day how a bride and groom are advertised to. The planner of yours is going to be actively involved in website location, vendor option and can assist the bride, groom and their families produce a range of choices. A planner does not include only bargain prices.

Doing It Yourself

Remember, wedding planning is an “optional” service, not an absolute necessity. Regardless of what the bridal magazines are now thinking. While a party planner is generally advised for big affairs, those planning a smaller wedding might choose to get it done by themselves. With the information and resources on the Internet today, an increasing number of couples are selecting this option.

A “do-it-yourself” wedding is equally as attractive and fulfilling as one organized by an experienced planner so long as preparations are going long enough ahead of time to permit the learning curve all self-planners are certain to encounter.

Things To Consider When Choosing An Event Venue

While sorting out an occasion, you are faced by numerous choices. Picking a venue is the one choice that will have the biggest effect on your event. The date of the event, providing food alternatives, and participants’ wonderful encounter, all are mostly influenced by which place you select. It likewise has the ability to characterize the achievement of your occasion. It’s imperative to give careful consideration to the venue setting in light of the fact that whatever remains of your arranging will nearly identify with the scene.

What is the occasion?

The kind of occasion that you’re arranging ought to be one of the principal things that you consider while picking your venue. Certain kinds of occasions, similar to public interviews, investor gatherings, executive gatherings, and other formal issues will require an alternate sort of room than more easy-going social occasions like subject gatherings and systems administration sessions.

In any case, you ought to likewise remember that viewpoints like diverse stylistic layout and lighting can radically impact the general feel and tone of the space itself, so you will have some space to redo your occasion involvement.

Number of footfalls:

This may appear to be clear, yet we needed to incorporate it as the measure of room that you and your participants have extensively influences your occasion’s general feel. On the off chance that your venue is too little, visitors will be swarmed and awkward, and may not stick around to encounter everything that you bring to the table. Then again, having excessively additional space can influence your occasion to feel betrayed and under went to, which could have a comparable impact. Having a strong gauge of your normal number of participants will enable you to pick a space that is perfect.

Cost-calculation:

Before arranging any occasion, it’s vital to take a seat and plan a spending you can stick to. All things considered, the cost of the setting is imperative to focus on with the goal that you can guarantee you have enough cash for nourishment, diversion, and enhancements. While us as a whole need to book the most captivating venue, it’s occasionally important to bargain and be adaptable. For instance, in case you’re not strict on date, certain days of the week are less expensive to book.

Food and refreshments:

Now, you have to choose if you are searching for a setting that has a kitchen on location that can give providing food administrations to your occasion, and in addition in the event that they have an alcohol permit to serve mixed drinks. If so, you should check whether the event will forgo the office expense, maybe picking rather than a store and sustenance and drink least. If not, ask about any associations with nourishment and drink merchants, or check whether you’re allowed to work with organization of your picking. Sometimes, the setting may charge extra expenses to work with merchants outside of their favoured system, or may have elite connections that would keep you from doing as such. Know More

5 Of The World’s Best Sport Venues

There are stadiums which each game fan longs for going to. Spots where individuals would do anything to watch one match. Spots where you can see the history overflowing from the dividers. These are the stadiums where at some time something extraordinary occurred, the stadiums that emerge from the rest. They are the most notable scenes in sports, and everybody needs to visit them.

Here are 5 of the world’s best sport venues:

Wimbledon Stadium:

It might be the focal point of the tennis world for just two weeks of the year however there’s no tennis setting like Wimbledon. Its name originates from its area – Wimbledon, a region of southwest London. Initially it was based off Worple Road, however it moved to its present area Church Road in 1922.

Roger Federer, John McEnroe, and Rafael Nada – all have shone here. The All England Lawn Tennis Club at Wimbledon has everything.

The tickets of the tournament are secured generally through vote; be that as it may you may line for tickets on the D-day also.

Notre Dame Stadium:

There’s no school football program that has as devoted a following as Notre Dame. There is additionally no school football program as notable as The Fighting Irish.

Until you’ve really observed it in person you’ll never comprehend what’s so incredible about Notre Dame Stadium, so take the trip.

State Roland Garros:

Effectively a standout amongst the most notable tennis settings on the planet, Roland Garros has the French Open yearly. It opened in 1928, and all the tennis greats have won there at some time. It is a standout amongst the most well-known wearing settings on the planet.

Estadio Azteca:

The Azteca Stadium, situated in Mexico City, is a football (soccer) stadium with an official limit of 114,465 individuals. It facilitated football tournament in the 1968 Olympics. In the 1986 World Cup quarterfinal amongst Argentina and England, Diego Maradona scored two historic goals here. Estadio Azteca draws out the best and the most exceedingly bad on the planet’s best football players. The buzz here, particularly when Mexico are playing, is electric.

Circuit de Monaco:

There are many Formula One Grand Prix circuits far and wide, however there’s not at all like Monaco. This isn’t a circuit, this is a Grand Prix adequately occurring in the city of an entire nation. Monaco is a small city state on the French Riviera and the GP is hung on a restricted course with numerous rise changes and tight corners, and in addition a passage, making it a standout amongst the most requesting tracks in Formula One. Notwithstanding the moderately low normal speeds, it’s a hazardous place to race and is typically won by the absolute best drivers.

“History never really says goodbye. History says, 'See you later."

 Pablo Picasso

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